The Diamond

Diamond is a mineral belonging to the carbon group of the crops and is the most important gemstone. It is due to its physical and chemical properties, since the most intense mineral, transparency and light in the natural environment are perfect, refractive and sparkling at the highest degree. However, there is no other precious gem, which consists of only one element: the diamonds are carbon atoms, an allotropic form of carbon (see graphite). Due to its extremely high hardness, its industrial use is extensive.

Color: Color is of a wide variety, mostly colorless or yellowish white.The Diamond

Light: diamonds luster Transparency is transparent, translucent, but confused and opaque.

Hardness: 10 (Reference Mineral Mohs Hardness Scale)

Splitting: on octahedral planes is perfect.

Break: shell

Density: 3.52 g / cm³

Special feature: Large refraction and color scattering, which breaks the white light on several sides of the stone; rubbing a positive charge; At 720-1000 ° C, it is converted to CO2 in the presence of oxygen, converted to graphite by electric arc in nitrogen gas; only mixtures of K2Cr2O7 and H2SO4 or the berry of K2CO3 melt

Mineral properties: The diamond crystallizes in the regular system. Its most common form is the octahedron, then the rhombus decahedral and the hexakis decahedral, but it is also found in the deltoidocositetrahedron, tetrakishexahedra, triacystectomy, tetrahedron and hexachloroetrahedral. These shapes appear on their own or in different combinations. Twine crystals are also common.  The diamond crystals are characterized by the fact that edges and edges often become bulky and in this case, especially in the case of multilayer forms, they are approaching the spherical shape and, due to the uneven development of the plates, the distortion of the shapes often occurs. The crystals are often rough, fibrous, and have growth and dissolution traces.

Diamond crystals usually develop with mature crystals, floating from magma. The diamond material, the carbon dissolved in the magma, slowly cools out and the diamond crystal grows as long as there is coal supply or until the mineral closes around the nucleus and solidifies. During re-emergence of magma, the diamond may dissolve and recrystallize. The crystals whose formation is completed during growth are completely flattened, the edges are usually sharp. The crystals that have undergone a dissolution process are bent. On the growing crystals, the equilateral triangular growth equations appearing on the octahedral sheets are 60 ° relative to the edges of the octahedral sheets, while the edges of the dissolution triangles are parallel to the octahedron edges, the same as those formed during the burning of the diamond. On the dice, the growth elements are rectangular and their edges parallel to the diagonal of the dice. The diamond burns to carbon dioxide at 720-800 ° C in the presence of pure oxygen. At 1700 ° C in an oxygen-free environment or in the form of nitrogen gas, it is converted to graphite by electric arc. This was assumed by Newton in 1605 but only in 1772 by Lavoisier. In Oxygen, the diamond burns with a weak bluish flame, and it continues even when the heat source is removed. In the air, combustion starts at 850-1000 ° C and ceases after the heat source is removed. If the combustion process is interrupted, and then the crystal crystals of the diamond are observed by means of a manual magnifier or a microscope, the octahedral plates can detect regular triangular combustion pieces whose sides are parallel to each other and to the edges of the octahedron sheet.

Fracture and splitting: Diamond fracture is shellfish. Even older Plinius noticed that the hardness of the diamond was unbreakable, but in some ways already weak enough hammer knock-out. This is because the smooth and glossy pages of the octahedron are easily separated, that is, the diamond is well-spaced according to the octahedron sheet. This property is very important when grinding stones. Such a perfect cleavage, however, is found in crystals of perfect construction. Diamonds, which are joined by two or more crystals, can not be split in one direction. There is also a less good splitting, according to the pages of the rhombodeteer, and one even worse, according to the dice.

Optical properties: The diamond is simply refractory to its crystalline construction. Sometimes, however, certain diamonds may have an abnormal twin crack that is caused by fluid crevices. The refractive index of the diamond is very high: 2.4077-2.4653, therefore the angle of total reflection is small. The dispersion is strong: 0.0576. Because of its high refractive index of diamond, it is very strong; the light of the diamond is suitable for marking the light.

Optical properties: The diamond is simply refractory to its crystalline construction. Sometimes, however, certain diamonds may have an abnormal twin crack that is caused by fluid crevices. The refractive index of the diamond is very high: 2.4077-2.4653, therefore the angle of total reflection is small. The dispersion is strong: 0.0576. Because of its high refractive index of diamond, it is very strong; the light of the diamond is suitable for marking the light.

The value of the diamond: The value of the diamond depends to a large extent on the quality, size, color and purity of the stone. These qualities also contribute to the grinding quality. In addition to these properties, the price of diamonds is influenced by other factors, in particular the question of supply and demand. Today, maintaining price and supply levels in an artificial balance is only a rare occurrence of large price fluctuations. For smaller stones, the surplus is caused by higher sanding costs. For grinding a single stone stone, much less work and diamond dust is required than for 100 smaller stones to make a carat. The price of rough stones is about eighty-tenths of the grinding.

The value of diamonds used as gemstone is determined by 4C:

Color (color)

Clarity

Carat (weight in carat)

Cut

Clarity: Checking the purity of the diamonds is done at a magnification of ten times. Everything that is visible at such magnification is called an enclosure. Inclusions spoil the quality of the gemstones because they reduce the transparency and affect the color of the stone. Depreciation depends on their location, size and intensity. The most common inclusion is graphite.

A clarity of diamond is influenced by several factors:

the size of the inclusions - the higher the mineral content of a stone, the lower its degree of purity

the number of inclusions - the more inclusions in a stone, the lower the degree of clarity

the position of the inclusions - one of the inclusions is the most visible when placed directly

 below the bunches. The enclosures of the pavilion are reflected on the stone several times, 

so they are called reflectors. Inclusions are less noticeable if they are located beneath the 

crown's facets or along the runners.

the nature of external and internal defects - internal defects are inclusions, they may vary in

 shape and size. The surface, i.e., external defects are abrasions, scratches, cavities, grinding 

traces, etc.

the color of errors - if errors (mainly inclusions) cause local discolorations that differ from the 

original color of the diamond, the degree of purity of the stone decreases

Carat:The carat is the unit of measure used for the mass of gemstones. 1 carat = 0.2 g. (Not to be confused with the noble metal charms.)